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Manure storage poses invisible risk -- Safe Farm
This publication discusses five common gases found in manure storage facilities, and other hidden dangers.

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Manure: A Valuable Commodity
Animal manure can be a valuable fertilizer and soil amendment, but how valuable is it really? This publication looks at the changes in manure characteristics and how these changes have led to more valuable manure.
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Too Much Manure? Can Iowa use all its manure for fertilizer?
What happens to all the manure produced in Iowa? This publication discusses the amount of manure that is generated in the state and how much of it is able to be used to meet the nitrogen and phosphorus needs of the state's farmers.
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Hydrogen Sulfide Safety - Manure Agitation
Staying safe while pit pumping is critical as hydrogen sulfide levels can spike quickly and without warning. This publication discusses how to stay safe during manure agitation.
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Hydrogen Sulfide Safety - Monitoring
Exposure to hydrogen sulfide, even at low concentrations, can have serious health impacts. With more hydrogen sulfide in manure than there was ten years ago, monitoring the levels of the gas in manure is important. This publication discusses the importance of monitoring and the types of monitors available for purchase.
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Hydrogen Sulfide Safety - Barn Ventilation at Cattle Facilities
Properly ventilating hydrogen sulfide during manure agitation is critical to remove the gas and bring fresh air into a facility. This publication talks about how to set up a ventilation strategy when working with manure.
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Calibrating Liquid Tank Manure Applicators
Liquid manure can supply all the nutrients needed to attain optimum crop growth. Knowing how much manure to apply per acre and what nutrients are available and in what quantity, are keys to successfully using manure for crop production.
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Calibration Worksheet for Liquid Manure Tank Applicators
Liquid manure can supply all the nutrients needed to attain optimum crop growth. Knowing how much manure to apply per acre and what nutrients are available and in what quantity, are keys to successfully using manure for crop production.
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Distribution of Liquid Manure Application
Land application of liquid manure as a nutrient replacement or supplement for crop production is a well-established practice in Iowa. This practice replenishes cropland with nutrients removed by crop harvest. This publication provides tips for improving the performance of a distribution manifold used in the land application of liquid manure.
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Using Manure Nutrients for Crop Production
Manure has characteristics that make nutrient management different and sometimes more complicated than fertilizer. Find out about manure nutrient availability for crops, manure nutrient supply, manure nutrient application recommendations, adjusting for manure nitrogen volatilization, and more.
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Beef Feedlot Systems Manual
This manual can help producers compare five feedlot facility types including confinement and open lot.

Estimated costs, performance assumptions based on available research, manure value, and discussion on environmental issues are provided and analyzed for each facility type.

The companion Feedlot Facility Economic Assessment calculator provides producers with a quick comparison between types of facilities and related costs. Spreadsheets can be customized to your operation to conduct an economic facility assessment, input costs, and performance related measures to optimize operations. Use it conjunction with the Beef Feedlot Manual.

To be notified of updates on the calculator tool, provide your contact information here.
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DNR Commercial Manure Applicator Certification Fact Sheet: MAC - Manure Applicator Certification
This form provides background information on manure applicator certification including legal issues, training courses, testing, late fees, certificates, requirements, and disciplinary actions.

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DNR Confinement Site Manure Applicator Certification Fact Sheet: MAC - Manure Applicator Certification
DNR's manure applicator certification: includes information on who is affected, becoming certified, maintaining certification, grace period, late fees, manure application, duplicate certificates, certification training courses, testing, training manual, test preparation, requirements for manure application, and disciplinary actions.
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Manure Storage & Handling - Manure Additives Overview
A wide range of manure additives exist on the market. This fact sheet focuses on those products that can be added directly to the manure, or fed through the animal to impact manure. While the use of additives can be implemented with little change to the current manure system, typically effectiveness of product ranges all over the place.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Land Application - Application Methods
Land application of manure is an important contributor to the emissions from animal agriculture and has the potential to be a significant source of gases and odors. This fact sheet reviews the effectiveness of different land application methods on reducing emissions and odors.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Manure Storage & Handling - Solids Separation Overview
Solid-liquid separation is the partial removal of organic and inorganic solids from animal manures. This separation makes the liquid waste stream easier to handle and increases the life of manure storage by decreasing the build-up and solids. It does create two manure streams, solid and liquid, that need to be managed and land-applied.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Manure Storage & Handling - Anaerobic Digestion Overview
Anaerobic digestion is the process of breaking apart molecules without oxygen. Anaerobic digestion can more effectively control odors and be used to generate heat or electricity.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Manure Storage & Handling - Composting Overview
Composting is a biological process in which microorganisms convert organic material into a soil-like material. Composting, when done correctly can reduce flies, pathogens and weed seed in solid manure sources. It can also reduce odors, but nitrogen loss does occur.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Animal Housing - Urine and Feces Segregation Overview
The manner in which manure is collected can have an impact on emissions. By segregating liquids and solids it is possible to increase the nitrogen retention in the liquid portion of the manure thereby reducing ammonia emissions. These systems require handling two waste streams.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Manure Storage & Handling - Acidification Overview
Manipulating the pH of the manure alters the balance between ammonia and ammonium. As ammonia is the volatile of these two compounds, reducing the pH to change ammonia to ammonium can be effective at reducing loss of nitrogen. Additionally, ammonia emissions are an environmental and human health concern. Acidification is one strategy to reduce ammonia emissions.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Manure Storage & Handling - Aeration Overview
Aeration is the process of mixing air into the manure to promote the growth of aerobic bacteria. Oxygen must be supplied either naturally, mechanically through mixing, or using oxygen diffusion systems. This technology can provide dramatic odor reduction from livestock waste management facilities, but has not found frequent application in agriculture due to intensive energy use and resulting added utility costs.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Manure Storage & Handling - Permeable Covers
Permeable covers are used to reduce odors and emissions from manure storage structures. Permeable covers are materials such as a natural crust, straw, ground corn stalks, as well as expanded clays, ceramics and ground rubber that lie directly on the surface of the stored manure and provide a physical barrier between the manure and the surrounding air.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Manure Storage & Handling - Impermeable Covers
Impermeable covers can be used to reduce odors and emissions from manure storage or to capture biogas for heat or power generation. Impermeable covers are placed on manure storage structures to create a physical barrier that prevents the transfer of volatile chemical compounds from the manure storage headspace to the atmosphere.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Animal Housing - Dietary Manipulation Overview
This fact sheet features diet manipulation as a management practice to address odor and emissions coming from animal housing and manure storage systems. Reducing nutrients in manure can lead to reductions in emissions. Reducing nutrients in manure is broken into two main areas, nutrient input reduction and nutrient form modification. This fact sheet describes both methods.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Animal Housing - Landscaping Overview
Landscaping or the use of Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEBs) can be used to manage odors and dust coming from animal housing and manure storage structures. VEBs can impact odors and dust by dilution, dispersion, deposition, and collection of compounds. In addition, VEBs can reduce impacts on neighbors by creating aesthetically-pleasing sites.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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Air Quality in Bedded Mono-Slope Beef Barns
Find research data about gas concentrations and dust associated with bedding, ventilation, and manure handling systems in mono-slope barns. Data were gathered from studies conducted in Iowa, Nebraska, and South Dakota.
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Manure Management Resources for Beef and Dairy Operations
Contact information for various government and non-government agencies involved in manure management.
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Small Open Lot Dairies in Iowa -- a producer guide
Find ways to better manage dairy feedlot manure and runoff and assess environmental impact. Includes practices that help you manage manure nutrients while protecting water quality. Explains how state and federal regulations apply to open feedlots and gives sources for technical assistance.
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Small Open Beef Feedlots in Iowa -- a producer guide
Find ways to better manage feedlot manure and runoff and assess environmental impact. Includes practices that manage manure nutrients while protecting water quality.

Explains how state and federal regulations apply to open feedlots and gives sources for technical assistance.
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Determining Your Manure Management Plan Due Date
This fact sheet provides step by step directions for accessing the DNR Animal Feeding Operations public database to determine due dates of manure management annual plan updates and four-year plans.
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How to Interpret Your Manure Nutrient Analysis
A manure sample analysis that indicates manure nutrient concentrations can help define application rates and increase the potential as a crop nutrient source. Learn how frequently to sample, what testing to request and how to use analysis results in a manure nutrient management plan.
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Separation Distances for Land Application of Manure from Open Feedlots & Confinement Feeding Operations, Including SAFOs: MAC - Manure Applicator Certification
Summary of manure application rules observed by Iowa law. Guidance document only; not to be used as replacement for the administrative rules (567 IAC chapter 65).
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Flat Bottom Gravity Drain Gutters for Swine Manure
One way to avoid long-term storage of manure in swine buildings is to use gravity drain gutters to remove manure to outside storage. This publication deals specifically with flat bottom gutters.
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Calibration and Uniformity of Solid Manure Spreaders
This publication outlines how to calibrate dry manure equipment and measure the manure distribution uniformity, and shares results of ISU Extension research comparing rear- and side-delivery spreaders.
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Vented Plumbing for Livestock Manure Handling Systems - Livestock Industry Facilities and Environment
Animal manure systems that drain building manure pits into separate storage pits should have vented plumbing systems. This publication includes information on vented plumbing and information on other publications for additional help.
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Pit Recharge Manure Management System - Livestock Industry Facilities and Environment
Use this system to provide better air quality inside livestock buildings and minimize equipment deterioration.
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Applying Fertilizer and Lime to CRP Land | Conservation Reserve Program: Issues and Options
Sample and test soil to determine how much fertilizer, manure, and lime to apply to meet crop needs when converting land in CRP to crop production.
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Tillage, Manure Management, and Water Quality -- Resources Conservation Practices
Tillage and manure application practices significantly impact surface and ground water quality in Iowa. Learn how tillage and manure management affect soil erosion and considerations for nitrogen and phosphorus use.
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Manure and Tillage Management -- Resource Conservation Practices
Adopting best management practices throughout an operation must take into consideration both manure application and tillage management.
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Odor Chemistry -- The Science of Smell Part 2
More than 75 odorous compounds have been identified in livestock manures. Knowing odor chemistry is helpful to design and manage manure systems and avoid nuisance complaints.
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Emergency Action Plans
Detailed suggestions for creating an emergency action plan for a livestock facility in case of an accident such as a manure spill.
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New Weight Restrictions for Manure Hauling Equipment
Overview of updates for farm equipment weight restrictions. Includes weight restrictions with explanations.
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Confinement Site Manure Applicator Study Guide Notebook
Iowa's confinement site manure applicator certification is designed to help you use manure as an asset and avoid water quality problems due to improper application. Find out about land application, emergencies and safety, applicator rules, recordkeeping, and more.
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Circular Concrete Manure Tanks
This booklet is intended for designers and ag engineers who understand reinforced concrete design, applicable codes, and soil properties.

Illustrations, an example of a design solution, and a record for design decisions complete the resource. TR-9 is based on ACI-318 (Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete).
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Commercial Manure Applicator Certification Study Guide
Iowa's confinement site manure applicator certification is designed to help you use manure as an asset and avoid water quality problems due to improper application. Find out about land application, emergencies and safety, applicator rules, and more. This study guide is for commercial applicators.
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Soil Injection - Iowa Odor Control Demonstration Project
This 1998 publication discusses soil injection to control odors from manure during and after land application. Soil immediately covers the manure, isolating it from the air above. Read about effectiveness.
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Synthetic Covers - Iowa Odor Control Demonstration Project
This 1998 publication discusses synthetic covers on top of liquid storage units that provide a physical barrier between liquid manure and the air. Learn about their effectiveness in controlling odor.
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Biocovers - Iowa Odor Control Demonstration Project
This 1998 publication discusses biocovers. They are fibrous biological materials such as straw or chopped cornstalks that are placed on top of liquid storage units to provide a physical aerobic barrier between the liquid manure surface and the air. Read about their effectiveness.
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You Can't Afford Not to Haul Manure - Livestock Industry Facilities and Environment
Cost-benefit analysis of properly using livestock manure.
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Swine Farrowing Handbook
Planning, design factors, animal environment, manure management, utilities, construction, and remodeling are major topics of this work. Concepts from nine MWPS farrowing building plans plus space use guidelines, layout alternatives, and construction techniques are featured.
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Swine Growing Finishing Building
 28’ x 80’ monoslope, modified open-front building to house about 240 pigs. Three plans are included.
  • Plan A shows a 10’ wide by 8’ deep manure pit under slats.
  • Plan B shows a 10’ wide flush gutter under slats.
  • Plan C shows a 5’ wide open flush gutter. Natural ventilation.
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33'x92' Swine Gestation Building
This plan is for a 33' x 92' stud-frame building housing 120 gestating sows in individual stalls. Mechanical ventilation is provided in cold weather. Options include flush gutters or pit manure storage.
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33'x60' Swine Breeding Building
Plan is for a 33' x 60' stud-frame building housing stimulus stalls, a holding pen, a breeding area, boar pens and gilt pens. Building has year-round mechanical ventilation and totally slotted floors with liquid manure storage.
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Two Rows of Stalls, 48 Sows -- Swine Gestation Building
Two rows of stalls, 48 sows. This plan is a 24’ x 54’ (or 56’) stud-frame building housing 48 gestations sows in individuals stalls. Mechanical ventilation is provided in cold weather ventilation doors are opened for natural ventilation in warm weather. Plan A shows a totally slotted floor with pit manure storage Plan B show 30’’ slats over flush gutters at the rear of the stalls.
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24'x60' Swine Breeding Building
This plan is for a 24’ x 60’ stud-frame building with 10 stimulus stalls, 8 boar pens, a sow-gilt pen, and a sow holding pen. Year-round mechanical ventilation, totally slotted floors, and liquid manure storage are provided.
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Four Rows of Stalls, 192 Sows -- Swine Gestation Building
Four rows of stalls, 192 sows. This plan is for a 42’ x 108’ (or 110’) stud-frame building housing 192 gestation sows in individual stalls. Mechanical ventilation is provided in cold weather, ventilation doors are opened for natural ventilation in warm weather. Plan A shows a totally slotted floor with pit manure storage. Plan B shows 30’ slats over flush gutters at the rear of each row of stalls.
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20 Litter Nursery
Full-slotted floor, 20 litters. This plan is for a 24’ x 32’ (or 36’) stud-frame building with yearround mechanical ventilation and housing 20 litters. Plan A shows a slotted floor over 4’ deep manure storage pits. Plan B shows a slotted floor over shallow pits that are flushed by two siphon- flush tanks.
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Modified Open Front Swine Finishing Building
Partly slotted floors, 168 pigs. This plan is for a 24’ x 56’ (or 64’) pole-frame building housing three 8-pig litters in each of 7 pens for a total of 21 litters or 168 pigs. Plan A shows a 10’ wide by 8’ deep manure storage pit under slats. Plan B shows a 10’ wide by 1’ deep flushed gutter under slats. Ventilation: Open front and ridge vents provide natural ventilation for the building. The open front can be closed down with doors, or rolled curtains.
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Off Center Alley Swine Finishing House
Off-center alley, 320 pigs. This plan is for a 32’ x 80’ (or 84’) stud-frame building housing 320 pigs (about 40 litters). Plan A shows 6’ and 10’ slats over 8’ deep pits for in building manure storage. Plan B shows 4’ slats over flushed pits. Plan C shows open gutters that are flushed from two siphon-flush tanks. Ventilation: open front and ridge vents provide natural ventilation for this building. The open front can be closed down with doors, or rolled curtains.
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Confined Beef, 34' Shed Roof
Building has exterior feed bunk, waterers, feeding and handling alley, manure tank, and concrete slat floor.
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