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Measuring Soil Organic Carbon: A Crucial Iowa Resource
This publication discusses how soil organic carbon has a wide range of crucial roles in agriculture. It impacts crop productivity, soil health, the movement of water, and removal of contaminants. Key themes of this publication include how soil organic carbon is closely related to soil organic matter, but the two are measured differently; soil organic carbon is linked to many aspects of soil health such as nutrient exchange, soil water holding capacity, and it provides great value on the farm; carbon markets are focused on changes in soil organic carbon stock that result from the application of new agricultural management practices; and the stock of soil organic carbon in a field is based on organic carbon concentration, depth of sampling, area of the field, and adjustments for other soil characteristics.
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An Introduction to Biochar and its Potential Uses
Biochar is a black charcoal material produced from biomass with a process called pyrolysis. Biochar is manufactured for use as a soil amendment instead of a fuel for cooking.

This publication discusses research and the benefits of using biochar in soil.
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Whole Farm Conservation Best Practices Manual
Improving water quality, soil health, and wildlife habitat while remaining productive and profitable is the focus of many conservation efforts in Iowa. Confidence in practice selection and management is essential for implementing conservation practices. This publication provides best management recommendations for farmers and landowners getting started with conservation and water quality practices by helping select and incorporate in-field and edge-of-field conservation practices most appropriate to the decision maker's land and preferences.
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Iowa Pizza Rocks -- Vibrant Clubs
Let’s look at a map of Iowa. Can you find where you live? What places have you been to and what have you seen as you’ve driven around the state? In this activity, we will prepare a pizza that is a geological replica of Iowa! Iowa’s rock and mineral foundation is several layers deep. The oldest layer is on the bottom, followed by the next oldest, then the next oldest, and so on. The layers of the earth under Iowa were molten or fluid initially. They hardened with time and pressure. Our pizza crust and cream cheese represent a common rock that is found in the layers deep below Iowa’s surface. It is called limestone. Limestone is also found on the surface of soil. Older rocks exist below the limestone layer, but we will not discuss that today.
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Farmer Perspectives on 4R Plus, Cover Crops, and Soil Health - Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll
This report focuses largely on Iowa farmers’ perspectives regarding a major nutrient management effort called the 4R Plus initiative, a science-based framework designed to guide improved nutrient management among farmers. The initiative is promoted by a coalition of more than 50 public and private agricultural stakeholders and conservation NGOs.
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Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic Nematode Sample Submission Form
Download and use this form when submitting soil samples for nematode identification and counts.

This form is for soybean cyst nematode egg counts, nematodes on corn, turfgrass nematodes, nematodes found in vegetable or fruit crop fields, as well as home gardens. Also includes instructions on collecting and shipping plant and soil samples for nematode analysis at the ISU Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic

This editable PDF can be filled out online, saved, and then printed; or it can be printed and completed manually.
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Carbon Science for Carbon Markets: Emerging Opportunities in Iowa
Credible carbon credits are a precondition for carbon markets. Unlike two decades ago, when voluntary carbon markets were just being developed, much is known today that supports credible carbon credits, including those that are agriculturally based. This report addresses ways to further improve the credibility of agricultural carbon credits and reduce the cost of carbon programs by assessing the underlying science and adding transparency to how carbon markets function. We assess the history and structure of carbon markets; carbon credit measurement, reporting, and verification protocols; the impacts of land—especially cropland—and livestock management practices on greenhouse gas and soil organic carbon dynamics, and adoption of these practices; existing and emerging engineering technologies that could reduce greenhouse gas emissions or enhance carbon removal; and quantitative tools that could help facilitate carbon market development. The geographic scope is primarily focused on the state of Iowa. The report furthermore highlights ways multisectoral collaborations—for example, between farmers, scientists, industry, government, and civil society organizations—could remove barriers and further market development.

The Carbon Sequestration Task Force was authorized on June 22, 2021, by Iowa Governor Kim Reynolds under Executive Order Number 9. Task A of this executive order states: "Reviewing the research on carbon sequestration, considering any gaps in current assessments, and determining whether new research, standards, or definitions should be developed."

As part of the analysis provided to the Task Force, researchers at Iowa State University (ISU) were asked by the Iowa Economic Development Authority (IEDA) to undertake an assessment of the science supporting agriculturally based carbon markets. This report includes the work of 51 faculty members, staff, postdoctoral associates, and graduate student scholars associated with four colleges, four institutes and centers, and 13 departments throughout ISU.
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Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide 3rd Edition
The updated and expanded edition of this popular, 162-page guide includes nearly 30 pages of new material, including cover crop suggestions for common rotations, up-and-coming cover crop species, effects on yields, climate considerations, and more.

Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops.

Although farmers have been using cover crops for centuries, today's producers are part of a generation that has little experience with them. As they rediscover the role that cover crops can play in sustainable farming systems, many growers find they lack the experience and information necessary to take advantage of all the potential benefits cover crops can offer. That inexperience can lead to costly mistakes.

This guide will help you effectively select, grow, and use cover crops in your farming systems. While this guide isn't the final word on cover crops, it is meant to be a useful reference.

Available for purchase through Purdue University.
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Interpreting SCN Soil Sample Results
As growers and those who advise them collect soil samples from fields to test for the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and compare results from various fields and soil testing laboratories over multiple years, there are several things to consider to help interpret the soil sample results.
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Crabgrass (Digitaria spp.)
Crabgrass, sometimes called watergrass, is a warm-season annual grassy weed that is prevalent in Iowa. Crabgrass germinates in the spring once soil temperatures hit 55°F for four straight days and nights, and will die with the cooler weather and frost in the fall. Iowa has both Digitaria ischaemum (smooth crabgrass, smooth hairless stems with hairs where the stem and leaf meet) as well as Digitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass, the stems and leaves contain hairs).
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Turfgrass Biological Soil Health
Soil health or soil quality refers to the ability of soil to function and sustain productivity, enhance and maintain water and air quality, and support plant health. Soils provide many essential functions, such as regulating water, sustaining plant and animal life, reducing potential pollutants, cycling nutrients, and physical stability. Soil health involves physical, chemical, and biological processes and properties.
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May Soil Health -- Gardening to Give
Feed your club, community, country, and your world with monthly, hands-on research-based learning opportunities. Gardening to give features activities on gardening and growing, designed for all ages and experience levels. Working together, we can provide food for our loved ones, and donate to food pantries while engaging in this horticulture learning experience.

This Gardening to Give lesson focuses on soil health. Soil acts as a water filter, provides habitat for billions of organisms, and serves as a foundation for our cities and towns.

Additional information about the program is available on the Gardening to Give webpage.
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Iowa Soil Judging Score Card
Soil judging consists of evaluating certain properties of a soil and interpreting these evaluations for land use recommendations. This score card provides space for recording both the choices made and the scores earned by the contestants in soil judging contests.

Previously know as PM 1107.
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Soil Judging in Iowa
Soil judging consists of evaluating certain properties of a soil and translating these evaluations into recommendations for land use. This booklet is a guide for making these evaluations and interpretations.

Previously known as PM 1106.
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How to Sample Manure for Nutrient Analysis
A field-by-field nutrient management program requires multiple components to maintain adequate fertility for crop growth and development. A well-designed soil sampling plan, including proper soil test interpretations, along with manure sampling, manure nutrient analysis, equipment calibration, appropriate application rates and application methods are all necessary components of a nutrient management plan. This publication describes how to sample solid, semisolid, and liquid manure.

Previously known as PM 1558.
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Specialty Melons for High Tunnel Production
High tunnel production is on the rise in Iowa and the Midwest due to the benefits of season extension and the control over water and nutrient application. High tunnels, a passively heated hoop house where crops are usually planted directly in the soil, allow for an extension of the growing season and extended cash flow. This publication features the crop specialty melons as an alternative that can be used in high tunnel rotation in addition to tomato, pepper, cucumber, and salad greens.
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Iowa Fruit and Vegetable Production Budgets: Annual Crops
Production budgets help to allocate land, labor, and capital. The most appropriate use is defined by the person in control of the resources and may be used to maximize profits or minimize soil loss or any other goal.

Sample budgets included in this publication are divided into five sections: total receipts, costs of planting and growing the product, pre-harvest and harvest expenses, ownership costs, and summary of returns.

The estimated costs illustrated in this publication are based on Extension professionals experience with a variety of growers in Iowa. The returns are based on common prices and yields received by farmers. Costs are those typically incurred related to ownership costs, crop inputs, and other expenses. The budgets were developed on a 4 foot by 100 foot bed.
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Current challenges in managing corn rootworm
Corn rootworm is a major corn pest in the United States and established throughout Iowa. With the commercial release of transgenic Bt-rootworm corn in 2003, many farmers reduced or eliminated soil-applied insecticides to manage larvae. However, western and northern corn rootworm are adapting to transgenic technologies throughout the Corn Belt. This publication will review the current status of Bt resistance by rootworm in Iowa and recommend management strategies for sustainable corn production.
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Integrating poultry into an organic vegetable cropping system: benefits, challenges, and considerations
Commonly researched and implemented methods of crop-livestock integration in the United States include grazing livestock on cover crops, rotational grazing of permanent pasture, and grazing livestock on crop residues such as corn or wheat. A less space-intensive alternative for vegetable growers is the use of chickens introduced into a vegetable rotation. One of the advantages of vegetable-poultry integrated systems is the opportunity for an organic producer to integrate chicken production in the farm’s existing cropping system, where chickens provide natural fertilizer for crops. The addition of chickens, along with the already implemented cover crops, could move organic growers closer to their goals of relying upon on-farm produced inputs, or those produced nearby, and meet crop and livestock needs for feed and soil nutrition.
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Giant Pumpkin Story -- On the Go Lesson
Anyone who has grown giant pumpkins will agree, the life cycle of a giant pumpkin is fast, enormously strong, and furious. Many things are needed to grow a large pumpkin, including a giant pumpkin seedling, and preparing the soil so it has the correct nutrients. Giant pumpkin record holders also share that they mound the soil over the vine to create a double root system. Most of the prized pumpkins are at least 10 feet from the main root. Check out the life cycle of this giant pumpkin using the handout provided. Then create your own model of the life cycle of a pumpkin, and create a fun jack-o-lantern.

These To Go Lessons can be used to create a "grab and go" style activity with supplies included. Add your local contact information, print, and cut each sheet in half. The left side can be used on the outside of the paper bag or box to identify the activity, and the right side can be placed in the package as an instruction sheet.
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Effectiveness of Using Low Rates of Plant Nutrients
Although some producers may think about using low rates of fertilizer to reduce input costs, this can adversely affect yields if soil fertility drops below optimal levels. Read about the research to help your decision-making.

Available from North Dakota State University.

Replaces NCR 0341.
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Field Crop Production Handbook
The Field Crop Production Handbook provides a general overview of the essential aspects of producing field crops in Iowa. It focuses primarily on the basic activities of crop establishment, care, and harvest, as well as the associated impact of these practices on soil, water, and wildlife. The purpose of this book is to provide clarity to the non-farming public, educate agriculture students who may not have farming backgrounds, increase knowledge for those already working in agriculture, and to reach audiences not traditionally associated with agriculture.

Looking to purchase multiple copies? The Field Crop Production Handbook is sold in boxed quantities of 37 at a reduced price ($6/copy).

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Field Crop Production Handbook (Unit=37)
The Field Crop Production Handbook provides a general overview of the essential aspects of producing field crops in Iowa. It focuses primarily on the basic activities of crop establishment, care, and harvest, as well as the associated impact of these practices on soil, water, and wildlife. The purpose of this book is to provide clarity to the non-farming public, educate agriculture students who may not have farming backgrounds, increase knowledge for those already working in agriculture, and to reach audiences not traditionally associated with agriculture.

Sold as a box of 37 copies (only $6/copy!)

A digital version of the handbook is available; see single copy listing below.
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Cover Crop Monsters -- On the Go Lesson
For this activity you will create a cover crop monster, which will help you see how quickly grasses germinate and provide ground cover.

These To Go Lessons can be used to create a "grab and go" style activity with supplies included. Add your local contact information, print, and cut each sheet in half. The left side can be used on the outside of the paper bag or box to identify the activity, and the right side can be placed in the package as an instruction sheet.

Coordinator Tip: We recommend 1 teaspoon of seed and approximately 1 cup of soil per kit. You can adjust this based on the number of kits you need and the containers you are able to source.

Youth-serving organizations in Iowa are encouraged to contact their local Iowa State University Extension and Outreach county office to explore partnership opportunities in administering this program.
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Farmer Experiences with Fall Grazing Cover Crops
Establishing cover crops following grain production is a proven tool to protect soil, reduce erosion, improve water quality and enhance soil quality, as well as forage for livestock. Little research has focused on using cover crops for fall feed, however. This publication provides information from producers across Iowa who have fall grazed cover crops for two or more years and shares their experiences.
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A Landowner's Guide to Prairie Strips
Prairie strips are an agricultural conservation practice that uses strips of native prairie vegetation in or at the edges of field to protect soil and water and provide habitat for wildlife. This publication provides an introduction for landowners.
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Prairie Strips: Small Changes, Big Impacts
Prairie strips are an agricultural conservation practice that uses strips of native prairie vegetation in or at the edges of field to protect soil and water and provide habitat for wildlife. This publication summarizes the scientific research underpinning prairie strips.
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The Cost of Prairie Strips
Prairie strips are an agricultural conservation practice that uses strips of native prairie vegetation in or at the edges of field to protect soil and water and provide habitat for wildlife. This publication breaks down the establishment and maintenance costs of prairie strips.
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Farming with Prairie Strips
Prairie strips are an agricultural conservation practice that uses strips of native prairie vegetation in or at the edges of field to protect soil and water and provide habitat for wildlife. This publication provides an introduction for farmers.
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Installing Prairie Strips: Frequently Asked Questions
Prairie strips are an agricultural conservation practice that uses strips of native prairie vegetation in or at the edges of field to protect soil and water and provide habitat for wildlife. This publication breaks down factors farmers and landowners should consider when implementing prairie strips on their land.
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Reducing Food Safety Risks at Produce Farms - Biological Soil Amendments of Animal Origin (BSAAO)
Reducing food safety risks is critical for growers. This poster highlights safety risks associated with biological soil amendments of animal origin and is part of a series that can be displayed on produce farms to help remind workers of how to keep themselves and the produce they are growing safe.
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Agriculture Every Day
Agriculture Every Day is aimed at teaching youth in grades 4-12 about the importance of agriculture. All lessons follow the 4-H Experiential Learning Model and include hands-on, fun, and engaging activities. Each short (20-30 min) stand-alone lesson is on a different agricultural science topic. Six of the lessons focus on animal science and six focus on crop science. These lessons are meant to be a sampling of different agricultural science topics. Each lesson can be taught on its own or they can be used together in any order. Each lesson includes target grade level, educational goals for that lesson, educational standards addressed by the lesson, materials needed, and directions for set-up and implementation of the lesson. Here are some examples of how the lessons could be used:

  • A single lesson can be used as a stand-alone activity for a club meeting, short classroom activity, or afterschool activity.
  • Multiple lessons could be used over the course of multiple classroom or afterschool visits.
  • Any combination of these lessons could be used together for a 6-hour program like a day camp.
Lessons Include:
From Grass to Milk
What's Eating My Crop?
Plant's Purpose
Animal Safety
It Starts with a Seed
Beef Quality Grading and Pricing
Soil Bits and Pieces
Egg-Citing Eggs
Nutrients in the Soil
Taste Buds Lesson
What's that Spot?
Wonderful World of Wool

Youth-serving organizations in Iowa are encouraged to contact their local Iowa State University Extension and Outreach county office to explore partnership opportunities in administering this program.
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Lease Supplement for Obtaining Conservation Practices and Controlling Soil Loss
The purpose of this lease supplement is to encourage cooperation between tenants and landlords to obtain and maintain needed conservation practices on a rented farm.
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Iowa Farmers and the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy: Survey Results from the Upper Mississippi-Maquoketa-Plum Watershed
This report summarizes data on farmer awareness, attitudes, and soil and water conservation practice use related to the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy (NRS) in the Upper Mississippi-Maquoketa-Plum HUC6 watershed in northeast Iowa. The report will help interested stakeholders to track progress toward NRS goals on agricultural nutrient loss reduction and better understand related barriers and challenges.
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Iowa Farmers and the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy: Survey Results from the Missouri-Little Sioux Watershed
This report summarizes data on farmer awareness, attitudes, and soil and water conservation practice use related to the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy (NRS) in the Missouri-Little Sioux HUC6 watershed in northwest Iowa. The report will help interested stakeholders to track progress toward NRS goals on agricultural nutrient loss reduction and better understand related barriers and challenges.
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Green Gram and Black Gram: Small Grain Legume Crops for the Midwestern United States
Introducing new specialty crops that complement corn, soybean and cover crops can help improve soil health and provide enhanced long-term productivity and profitability. Green gram and black gram are examples of these specialty crops that are being tested at Iowa State University. This publication provides information on the crop themselves, as well as current Iowa State research.
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The Iowa Watershed Approach - Farm Ponds
Farm ponds are pools of water constructed using either a dam or pit. They collect and store surface runoff, helping reduce phosphorus loads and prevent soil erosion. This Iowa Watershed Approach publication highlights the importance of ponds and the benefits they provide.
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Nitrogen Use in Iowa Corn Production
Nitrogen is essential for growth and reproduction of crops and is involved in many important plant biochemical processes. Nitrogen management is critical for optimal yields for corn production systems. This publication discusses long-term research done in Iowa and shows corn yields average about 60 bu/acre for continuous corn and 115 bu/acre for corn following soybean when corn is not fertilized. However, corn fertilized with N will easily yield 200 bu/acre or more. This means soil management and nitrogen fertilization practices, such as using economical optimum N rates, should be used to help optimize crop yields, use N efficiently, and enhance water quality.

The regional Corn Nitrogen Rate Calculator website, which has been helping farmers determine profitable nitrogen rates since 2005, can be found at: cnrc.agron.iastate.edu. This tool provides a process to calculate economic return to N application with different nitrogen and corn prices and to find profitable N rates directly from recent N rate research data. Using the Maximum Return to Nitrogen concept within the calculator helps farmers implement the most economical nitrogen rate inputs, which helps moderate water quality issues.
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2017 Summary Report - Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll
Survey results for the 2017 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll discuss weed and herbicide resistance management, soil health, use of small grains in extended rotations, the influence of agricultural stakeholders on farmers' decisions and decision making among multiple farm operators.
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Beginning Dairy Farmer Video Series - Lynch Dairy - Part 4
Part IV of the Beginning Dairy Farmer Video series features the Lynch dairy. In this 7-minute video we focus on the organic dairy system they have chosen. Beginning farmers have various dairy system options as they begin their careers and the Lynch’s picked their system because of the increased milk prices, soil and animal health, and felt they could best profit from dairy this way while maximizing labor efficiency in their milking system.

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Micronutrients for Soybean Production in the North Central Region
Micronutrients are needed in very small quantities by plants but are essential for growth and production.

This publication is intended to be a resource for farmers and crop advisers of the North Central Region regarding micronutrient use in soybean production. Its purpose is to discuss issues and provide information on micronutrients requirements by soybean, factors that influence their utilization, and the value of soil and plant tissue testing to complement information and recommendations provided in specific extension publications in the different states of the region.
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Applying Woodchip Bioreactors for Improved Water Quality
In the quest to manage nitrate levels in Iowa’s waters, researchers are developing new ways to keep both soil and water healthy.

The use of woodchip bioreactors is just one tool Iowa State University Extension and Outreach specialist recommend to help manage nitrates levels.

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Iowa Soil Health Field Guide
This soil health field guide provides information about soil health and its importance to sustainable agriculture systems. The research-based information in this soil health guide highlights the relationships between soil characteristics in an easy to understand format that is useful to farmers, agronomists, agricultural consultants, soil scientists, technical service providers, and extension educators. This soil health field guide is the product of the collaborative efforts of Iowa State University and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) in Iowa.
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Iowa Soil Health Assessment Card
This card is for field assessment and evaluation of soil health indicators as part of the Iowa Soil Health Field Guide. The rating descriptions for each indicator presented on the score card represent the worst and best soil conditions at the time of evaluation.

As the ISHAC is used over time, the impact of different management systems can be documented.

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Lungs Need Protection from Farm Dust -- Safe Farm
Exposure to grain dust, molds, pollen, animal dander, soil dust, welding fumes, and diesel exhaust can lead to serious respiratory problems. Find out how to reduce your risks.

safefarm
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Use of the Late-Spring Soil Nitrate Test in Iowa Corn Production
This publication replaces all earlier guidelines for use of the late-spring soil nitrate test and nitrogen application suggestions based on test results.

Overall guidelines for nitrogen applications rates and use in Iowa corn production are found in publication CROP 3073 - Nitrogen Use in Iowa Corn Production.
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Manure: A Valuable Commodity
Animal manure can be a valuable fertilizer and soil amendment, but how valuable is it really? This publication looks at the changes in manure characteristics and how these changes have led to more valuable manure.
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Climate and Managing Corn-Soybean Agroecosystems, Vol. 2 of 5
It is critical, given an increasingly variable climate and occurrence of extreme weather events, to develop and test management approaches that increase the adaptive capacity of corn-based agriculture, and equip farmers and land managers to be functionally resilient.The findings, implications and recommendations in this report represent research conducted over the last five years (2011-2016) and is focused on improving understanding of the complex interactions among weather-climate, water cycles, nitrogen, soil carbon, and human-social systems of corn-based systems. This work reflects experimentation and assessments of in-field management practices, such as drainage, tillage, cover crops, extended rotations, and nitrogen sensing to determine how farmers can better utilize these practices to meet crop productivity and environmental goals under increasingly variable weather.
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Take a Good Soil Sample to Help Make Good Fertilization Decisions
Learn more about the most important step in soil testing to make fertilization decisions for FIELD CROPS - collecting the soil sample. Includes information on materials needed, when to sample, how to select a sample area, how often to sample and much more.

Previously known as PM 0287.
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Iowa Drainage Guide
This publication provides guidelines for drainage improvements installed on Iowa's agricultural land. It provides legal, soil management, and engineering information to farmers, engineers, contractors, farm planners, and others associated with drainage system planning, construction, and management.
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$25.00
Suggested soil micronutrient levels and sampling procedures for vegetable crops
Although needed in very small amounts, micronutrients have an important role to play in plant growth and development. Most of them are involved in enzymatic reactions that are essential for plant survival such as photosynthesis and respiration. This publication highlights the major roles, deficiencies, and toxicity symptoms of micronutrients in plants and provides an understanding of the interactions between micronutrients in the soil.
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Building Soil Health
This soil health management publication provides an overview about soil functions and services that are essential for sustainable agriculture systems. The research-based information in this publication highlights the relationships between soil properties that are easy to understand and useful to all, including farmers, agronomists, agricultural consultants, soil scientists, technical service providers, and extension educators.

This publication is the product of the collaborative efforts of Iowa State University and the Department of Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) in Iowa.

To allow for this publication to be distributed to as many people possible, the limit is one copy per order.

We appreciate your cooperation with this request.
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Iowa Cover Crop Resource Guide
A cover crop is a plant grown to protect and enrich soil when the soil would otherwise be bare. Historically, cover crops were used by ancient Greek, Roman, and Chinese farmers thousands of years ago and, more recently, by colonial settlers on the Eastern seaboard of the United States. Decades of research on cover crop usage across the United States is available and a renewed interest has been given to cover crops’ ability to reduce some of the environmental impacts of row crop agriculture, particularly in regards to erosion and nutrient loss prevention.
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Iowa Soil Health Management Manual
This soil health management manual provides information about soil functions and services that are essential for sustainable agriculture systems. The research-based information in this soil health management manual highlights the relationships between soil properties that are easy to understand and useful to all, including farmers, agronomists, agricultural consultants, soil scientists, technical service providers, and extension educators. The soil health management manual has four sections and is the product of the collaborative efforts of Iowa State University and the Department of Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) in Iowa.

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2015 Summary Report - Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll
Survey results for the 2015 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll concern soil health, changes in farm practices and strategies, conservation practice use and monarch butterfly conservation. Questions focused on soil conservation efforts and their perceptions of those practices.
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Short Duration Cover Crops for Vegetable Production Systems
Cover crops are planted not for harvest, but are designed to maintain and enhance the sustainability of a production system by improving soil fertility, water quality and can lead to the suppression of weeds, soil erosion and pests. This publication provides information on how to use short duration cover crops to aid production, especially during a fallow period between two vegetable crops. Choosing the correct cover crop will impact its effectiveness, as will the grower’s method of seeding and termination. The publication provides tips for picking the right crop and showing how it should be used to maximize its effectiveness.
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Build Soil Organic Matter to Improve Your Crop Production System
A resource for farmers, teachers, and extension educators and agricultural advisors for understanding the benefits of building soil organic matter and how to build soil organic matter. This publication was written by extension educators working in the Corn Belt.
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2014 Summary Report - Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll
This report summarizes the results of the 2014 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll - an annual survey of farmers on issues important to rural Iowa since 1982.

Topics highlighted: the next generation of farmers, farm family succession plans, opinions about retirement decisions, use of professional advisers for agricultural decision making (i.e., fertilizer program development, pest and crop disease management, soil and water conservation), the use of information technology, and rural quality of life.
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Conservation Techniques for Vegetable Production: Combining Strip-Tillage and Cover Crops
Strip-tillage is when a crop is planted into narrow, tilled strips and the non-tilled area between the strips might contain residue from the previous season's main crop or a living or dead cover crop.

Combining strip-tillage and cover crops offers various benefits including minimal soil erosion, maintains soil moisture and weed suppression. This publication provides basic information on using a strip-tillage system with rolled cover crops as a conservation best management practice in vegetable production systems such broccoli, peppers, pumpkins, squash and tomatoes.
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Corn Belt farmers' concerns about water-related threats to farm viability
This brief summarizes key results from a 2012 survey of 4,778 farmers in 11 Corn-belt states. Here, the focus is upon farmers' concerns about how climate change and variable weather might affect soil moisture and precipitation needed for farm viability.
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Cover Crops in Vegetable Production Systems
Vegetable production systems require inputs and if not managed properly could have detrimental effects on soil and the environment. Cover crops are gaining importance and growers can used them as a best practice tool in preserving environmental sustainability of vegetable cropping systems without compromising farm productivity and profitability. This publication defines various cover crops and their benefits such as reducing soil erosion, compaction and synthetic nitrogen inputs, suppressing weeds, increasing soil organic matter and water infiltration, enhancing soil biology, and providing habitat for beneficial insects and natural enemies of pests.
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Soil-Test Results Summaries 2006-2010
The Iowa State University Soil Testing and Plant Analysis Laboratory received soil samples submitted by Iowa farmers from different counties statewide during January 2006 to December 2010.

Select soil-test results are summarized by county for phosphorus (P), potassium (K), zinc (Zn) and acidity levels (pH).
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Recommended Tomato Varieties for Commercial Production in Iowa
This publication provides information on suitable tomato varieties for commercial field and high tunnel production in Iowa. Even home growers of tomatoes will find a number of determinate and indeterminate cultivars available for Midwest temperatures and soil types.
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Midwest Climate and Specialty Crops
Specialty crop agriculture in the Midwest is an important and diverse industry, valued at $4.7 billion in 2012. The Midwest produces a wide variety of specialty crops including fruits, vegetables, and greenhouse and nursery crops. The 2014 United States Third National Climate Assessment reports that climate disruptions to agriculture have been increasing, and are projected to become more frequent and extreme. Increased variability in annual and intra-seasonal Midwest weather is already evident with heavier rainfall events and drought. Temperature and precipitation fluctuations are affecting frost dates, weed management, soil erosion, crop productivity, and pest and disease life cycles. This variability increases the uncertainty and risks associated with planting schedules, quantity and quality of crops harvested, timing of labor needs, and the entire value chain from product storage and processing to marketing. While US agriculture has continually adapted to changing weather and climate conditions, the magnitude of future change is expected to pose increased challenges and new opportunities.

To develop a plan of work that responds to Midwest specialty crop needs, twenty-five specialty crop leaders, research and extension faculty from Michigan State University and The Ohio State University participated in a planning process using a concept mapping methodology. Researchers Lois Wright Morton, professor of sociology at Iowa State University, and Anna Johnson, a graduate student at Iowa State, offer this report on crop leader views and priorities shared during the planning process. The findings in this 19-page report will be used to focus future research and inform individuals developing a region-wide plan of work for the Midwest Climate Hub. This is just a beginning.
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Generating Iowa CSR2 Reports from the NRCS Web Soil Survey
CSR2 is a Corn Suitability Rating index that rates soil types for their potential row-crop productivity. Previously called CSR, the CSR2 generally provides an index comparable with the original CSR but with greater transparency, consistency and method of calculation. The Natural Resource Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA NRCS and provides access to the largest natural resource information system in the world. NRCS has soil maps and data available online for more than 95 percent of the nation’s counties.

This task sheet demonstrates how to use the WSS to generate CSR2 Reports for Iowa counties.
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Manure Storage & Handling - Composting Overview
Composting is a biological process in which microorganisms convert organic material into a soil-like material. Composting, when done correctly can reduce flies, pathogens and weed seed in solid manure sources. It can also reduce odors, but nitrogen loss does occur.

This fact sheet is part of the Air Management Practices Assessment Tool (AMPAT) developed at Iowa State University and funded by the National Pork Board. Additional resources can be found on the AMPAT web page at: www.agronext.iastate.edu/ampat
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$0.00
Scientists Explore Crop Management Options for Storing Soil Carbon
Article explains how some researchers are studying on-farm practices that are likely to increase carbon storage in soil.

Lynn Laws is a communications specialist for Iowa State University and for the USDA-NIFA Sustainable Corn Project.

This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
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Understanding Water Needs of Diverse, Multi-year Crop Rotations
Crop rotation diversification is a tool farmers have to reduce economic risk, disrupt pest cycles, increase soil resilience, and improve water quality. Investigators with the Sustainable Corn Project are conducting studies to determine if diverse, multi-year rotations also can help crops thrive as precipitation patterns change in the Corn Belt.

Author Jeff Strock is a professor and soil scientist at the University of Minnesota. Co-author Brent Dalzell is a research associate and biogeochemist at the University of Minnesota.

This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
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$0.00
Drainage Water Management in the Corn Belt
Holding back drainage water in a field, with a water control structure, allows water to flow through longer pathways and seep into deeper soil layers. In addition to water quality benefits, it's possible that drainage water management also can boost crop yields and store water for times of drought stress.

Jane Frankenberger, a professor of agricultural and biological engineering at Purdue University and a principal investigator for the USDA-NIFA Sustainable Corn Project shares her research on this topic.

This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
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$0.00
Managing Crop Residue Removal and Soil Quality Changes
Significant, short-term effects of residue removal on soil physical properties can take place with residue management or removal. The adoption of no-till may offset some of these effects.
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Managing Crop Residue Removal and Soil Organic Matter
Following proper management practices is important when considering residue removal. When making removal decisions, keep in mind the adverse impact on soil productivity and environmental quality over the long-term.
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$0.00
Nutrient Considerations with Corn Stover Harvest
Weigh the relationships between corn stover harvest (as compared to grain only harvest) with the research presented in this publication.

Make informed decisions about using stover harvest for bioenergy and using corn residue for soil sustainability. Find corn N, P, and K fertilization recommendations needed to maintain desirable soil-test values.
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Issues with Stover Removal on Rented Land
Know the points to discuss on issues with corn stover removal on rented land. Points covered include ownership of stover, dispersal of increased revenue, and maintenance of soil quality and fertility. Includes references to the Iowa code.
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Lawn Fertilization
Use this publication to make lawn fertilization decisions based on soil and turfgrass needs, as well as fertilizer content and type. Also find the benefits of fertilizer, application procedures, and necessary precautions in this fact sheet.
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$0.00
Asparagus in the Home Garden
Asparagus, one of the most popular spring vegetables, is a hardy perennial that produces edible spears earlier than any other garden vegetable. Learn about site selection, soil preparation, cultivars, weed control, planting, insect pests, harvesting, and after harvest care.
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$0.00
Fertilizing Pasture
Research has demonstrated large increases in days of grazing, annual gain, or milk production per acre by fertilizing low yielding pastures. This publication addresses grass pasture fertilization rates, timing, and soil quality, including: types of nitrogen; nitrogen rates, response, and profits; and phosphorous and potassium (P-K) rates for legume-grass pastures.
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$0.00
Interpretation of Soil Test Results
A detailed explanation on how to interpret soil test results to assist with soil nutrient recommendations.
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$1.00
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A General Guide for Crop Nutrient and Limestone Recommendations in Iowa
Find phosphorus and potassium recommendations, micronutrient recommendations, and limestone recommendations for soils.

Also find soil test procedures and categories.
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$2.50
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$0.00
2013 Summary Report - Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll
This report summarizes the results of the 2013 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll - an annual survey on issues important to rural Iowa since 1982.

Topics highlighted: climate change, rented land, herbicide-resistant weeds, Bt-resistant corn rootworm, soil health and compaction.
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Keeping pesticides and nutrients in the field (Unit=Pkg of 25)
Find management practices that keep pesticides and nutrients in the field and out of Iowa's rivers and streams. Describes how pesticides move through the soil. Includes a checklist of management practices to protect water resources.

(Previously known as PAT 0055)
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Steps to Establish and Maintain Legume-Grass Pastures
Explores the steps to establish and maintain legume-grass pastures, including soil preparation, species and variety selection, seeding, weed and companion crop control, and management.
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$0.00
Improving Pasture By Frost Seeding
Frost seeding, sometimes referred to as overseeding, is an easy and inexpensive way to establish legumes in existing green pastures. This publication explains site selection, seeding, weed control, soil testing, fertilizing, grazing, and ongoing management. Includes seeding rates for alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, lespedeza, red, ladino, and alsike clover.
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$0.00
Site-Specific Nutrient Management
Site-specific management and planning for nutrient inputs is needed for optimizing economic return and minimizing effects on environmental quality. This publication includes information about factors that influence soil fertility, fertilization management, and associated relations with environmental quality.
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Cover Crop Selection and Management Part 1 of 3 (Video)
Tom Kaspar discusses how to select and manage cover crops for corn-based cropping systems in the upper Midwest.

Dr. Kaspar is a Plant Physiologist at the USDA-ARS National Soil Tilth Laboratory in Ames, IA. He also serves as a USDA Collaborator/Professor with the Agronomy Department at Iowa State University.




This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
[more]
Cover Crop Selection and Management Part 2 (Video)
Tom Kaspar discusses how to select and manage cover crops for corn-based cropping systems in the upper Midwest.

Dr. Kaspar is a Plant Physiologist at the USDA-ARS National Soil Tilth Laboratory in Ames, IA. He also serves as a USDA Collaborator/Professor with the Agronomy Department at Iowa State University.





This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
[more]
Cover Crop Selection and Management Part 3 (Video)
Tom Kaspar discusses how to select and manage cover crops for corn-based cropping systems in the upper Midwest.

Dr. Kaspar is a Plant Physiologist at the USDA-ARS National Soil Tilth Laboratory in Ames, IA. He also serves as a USDA Collaborator/Professor with the Agronomy Department at Iowa State University.





This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
[more]
Growing Strawberries in the Home Garden
Access detailed information about growing June-bearing, everbearing, and day-neutral strawberries. Find suggestions for selection of cultivars, planting sites, and plant sources. Also find tips for soil preparation, planting options, mulching, disease and insect control, harvesting, and winter protection.
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Where to Put Your Vegetable Garden
The amount of sunlight, soil type, and other factors are primary considerations when selecting a garden site. Get the details on planning your garden.
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Soybean Nutrient Needs
Maintaining a fertile growing environment is a risk management strategy that produces higher yield and healthier plants that better manage stress. This publication outlines crop nutrient removal rates, foliar fertilization and the influence of soil fertility on plant health.
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Soybean Response to Drought
Drought is a serious but infrequent stressor affecting Iowa soybean production. This publication describes how soybean plant growth and development and nitrogen fixation respond to water deficit conditions. It also discusses simple management practices that have been shown to improve soil water holding capacity.
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Corn Suitability Ratings -- An Index to Soil Productivity
Corn Suitability Rating (CSR) is an index procedure developed in Iowa to rate each different kind of soil for its potential row-crop productivity. The CSR can be used to rate one soil’s potential yield production against another over a period of time.
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Soil Nitrogen Cycle

Great teaching resource as well as a handout for use with the video: CSCAP 0109 2012 VIDEO

This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
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Soil Nitrogen Cycle (Video)
John Sawyer, professor, Iowa State University explains the nitrogen cycle with references to nitrogen management in corn-soybean cropping systems and current research issues.




This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
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No-Tillage Impacts on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water
Great teaching resource as well as a handout for CSCAP 0114 2012 VIDEO. The benefits of no-tillage in a corn-soybean system explained.

This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
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No-Tillage Impacts on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water (Video)
Warren Dick, professor, Ohio State University, gives a history and explains the potential negative and beneficial impacts of no-tillage in a corn-soybean system.




This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
[more]
Understanding the Dynamics of Soil Diversity and Variability in the Field
Handout for use with the video: CSCAP 0116 2012 VIDEO

This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
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$0.00
Soil Organic Carbon Cycle

Fact sheet about soil organic carbon and a handout for use with the video: CSCAP 0121 2012 VIDEO

This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
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The Soil Carbon Cycle (Video)
Dr. Sasha Kravchenko, Associate Professor, Michigan State University, discusses soil organic carbon cycle and crop management practices that increase and store carbon in the soil, while improving soil quality.




This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
[more]
Understanding the Dynamics of Soil Diversity and Variability in the Field (Video)
Jeanette Goodman, PhD Graduate Student, Purdue University, discusses research being led by Dr. Phillip Owens, to understand the dynamics of soil diversity and variability in corn-based cropping systems.




This resource is part of the USDA-NIFA funded project for climate and agriculture that gathered data from 35 field sites and thousands of farmers in 9 Midwestern states, with the goal of creating a suite of practices for corn-based systems.
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Attitudes Toward Cover Crops in Iowa: Benefits and Barriers
Learn how research on cover crops as a means toward maintaining and increasing soil productivity, also reduce agriculture's environmental impacts.

Based on data from the Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll 2010 Summary Report.
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Emerged seedling in a field setting
Description/Suggested Alternate Text:
Plant emerged through the soil in an Iowa corn field.

All digital media is copyrighted by Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Each purchase includes your acknowledgement and agreement of the Terms and Conditions to use.
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$16.80
Enterprise Budget: Raspberries
Raspberries are a favorite among consumers. This sweet fruit has become increasingly popular in the last decade with the United States as the world’s third largest producer. Washington, California, and Oregon are the leading producers in this country, but raspberries are suitable to grow in Iowa. Raspberry harvest begins in the early months of summer and extends into early fall. The first full crop from a raspberry planting will be harvested in the second year after planting.

Commercial production of raspberries is a long-term commitment with stands usually lasting 10 years. Careful site and variety selection, soil preparation and irrigation are important in the planning process.
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Nutrient Deficiencies and Application Injuries in Field Crops -- Integrated Pest Management
Color photos and descriptions aid in identifying nutrient deficiencies and injury due to fertilizer in order to accurately diagnose symptoms for corn, soybeans, alfalfa, and winter wheat.

More information and photos are available at the ISU Soil Fertility Home Page
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$2.00
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Submitting Soybean Samples to the Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic
Detailed instructions for submitting soybean plant samples, soybean cyst nematode soil samples, and soybean rust leaf samples.
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Giant Miscanthus for Biomass Production
Miscanthus has received widespread attention as a biomass crop in Europe where it is used primarily for combustion in power plants. In the U.S., Miscanthus is being investigated as a biomass crop for bioenergy and biofuel. Find out about its lifecycle and growth habit, soil and site adaptation, establishment, and more.
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Soil Erosion and Water Quality -- Resource Conservation Practices
Soil erosion by water and the impact of sediment-attached nutrients on lakes and streams creates problems for both agricultural land and water quality. Learn more about this topic along with conservation and best management practices.
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Conservation Buffers and Water Quality -- Resource Conservation Practices
Buffers are designed to intercept sediment and nutrients and reduce soil erosion; they also help enhance air and water quality and fish and wildlife habitats. Learn how to understand, manage, and maintain conservation buffers.
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Installation of Wastewater Treatment Systems
Installation of Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual is the definite source for information on installing decentralized systems. Used for the National Installer Training Program.

The materials produced include a manual with installation and startup checklists.

Includes:
  • Dosing systems and controls
  • Media filters
  • Aerobic treatment units
  • Constructed wetlands
  • Lagoons
  • Chlorination units
  • Soil treatment areas
  • Evapotranspiration beds
  • Drip and spray fields
  • Outfalls
Other helpful items include learning objectives, data tables, a math overview, volume and slope intersection calculations, introduction to surveying, watertightness testing, and an installer glossary.

The Consortium of Institutes for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment, often referred to as "The Onsite Consortium", is a group of Educational Institutions cooperating on decentralized wastewater training and research efforts. The Consortium also includes people from professional associations, citizens groups, regulatory agencies and private industry.
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$74.00
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$56.00
Soil Erosion, Crop Productivity and Cultural Practices
Research details on soil management effects on yield on sloped areas.
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Soil Fertility Management Strategies - Philosophies, Crop Response and Costs -- Sustainable Agriculture
Results of a three-year study of side-by-side research plots to evaluate two different fertility management strategies (sufficient level of available nutrients and cation ratio).
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Switchgrass
Provides a brief overview of switchgrass including definition, soil and site adaptation, establishment, fertility needs, yield, harvest considerations, pest management, and disease management.
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Effectiveness of Gypsum in the North-central Region of the U.S.
Find out about the specific, limited ways gypsum can be used effectively as a soil amendment in the North Central Region of the U.S.
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$0.50
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Data Collection Worksheet for RUSLE2 and Iowa Phosphorous Index
This worksheet provides guidelines for using the computer program RUSLE2 (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2) and for calculating the Iowa Phosphorous Index. These are needed in nutrient management and conservation planning.
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Iowa Soil Quality Card
Provides a method and details for a qualitative assessment of soil function and evaluation ratings.
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Applying Fertilizer and Lime to CRP Land | Conservation Reserve Program: Issues and Options
Sample and test soil to determine how much fertilizer, manure, and lime to apply to meet crop needs when converting land in CRP to crop production.
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Tillage Options After CRP | Conservation Reserve Program: Issues and Options
In making tillage decisions for CRP land, consider conservation concerns, farming objectives, and plant and soil conditions. This publication provides research results to help you.
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Garden Soil Management
Manage your garden soil more effectively. Learn about tillage, integrating organic matter, soil testing and pH, fertilizer application and more.
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Tillage Management and Soil Organic Matter -- Resources Conservation Practices
It has been well documented that increased tillage can reduce soil organic matter in topsoil. Learn what soil organic matter is; the importance of surface residue, tillage effect, and quality conservation systems; and the benefits of organic matter for improving soil quality.
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Tillage, Manure Management, and Water Quality -- Resources Conservation Practices
Tillage and manure application practices significantly impact surface and ground water quality in Iowa. Learn how tillage and manure management affect soil erosion and considerations for nitrogen and phosphorus use.
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Best Environmental Management Practices for Open Feedlots -- Solutions for Open Feedlot Operators
Checklist and discussion for best management practices for open feedlots to minimize impact on nearby soil, water, and air.
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Soil Quality in Organic Agricultural Systems
Building and maintaining soil quality is the basis for successful organic farming. Topics of crop rotations, soil amendments, soil health, carbon sequestration, organic agriculture philosophies, and relevant related field research are included.
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Weed Management for Organic Farmers
Organic farmers use a wide variety of tools and strategies to control weeds without synthetic chemicals. Those tools and strategies and their effects on soil quality are discussed.
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Understanding and Managing Soil Compaction -- Resource Conservation Practices
Excessively compacted soil can result in many problems including a reduced yield and an increase in horsepower and fuel necessary for tillage. Learn more about this problem as well as ways to reduce soil compaction.
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Residue Management and Cultural Practices -- Resource Conservation Practices
High crop residue levels translate directly into soil conservation benefits. Includes what affects crop residue and four methods of measuring it.
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$0.00
Impact of Tillage Crop Rotation Systems on Soil Carbon Sequestration
Report on the relationship between current agricultural practices and the carbon cycle.
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$0.00
Soil Sampling for Variable Rate Fertilizer and Lime Application
This booklet contains information about grid and zone soil sampling, variation in soil test values over time, sampling strategies for both grid cells and zones, and considerations for conservation tillage.

Available from the University of Minnesota.
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Watering the Home Garden -- Use of Trickle Irrigation
Hardy vegetable crops draw upon water and nutrients in the soil in order to quickly establish their root systems and sustain rapid growth. This publication illustrates conserving water using soil mulch, hand watering, and sprinklers, and provides detailed pictures and instructions for installing a trickle irrigation system.
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$1.00
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Soil Wetting Agents: Their Use in Crop Production
This publication discusses how the water infiltration process works and how wetting agents affect this process. Soil problems associated with water repellency, testing for water repellency, and factors in choosing a soil wetting agent also are discussed.
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Conservation Tillage Systems and Management
Crop Residue Management with No-till, Ridge-till, Mulch-till, and Strip-till

This resource book is filled with a wealth of information relating to conservation tillage systems and how to manage them. Helpful to producers who are investigating conservation tillage – contemplating its long-range issues – and looking for assistance for selecting equipment.

Topics include:
  • Tillage benefits and tillage system definitions
  • Wind and water erosion
  • Crop residue and irrigation water management
  • Residue management oat harvest
  • Estimating residue cover
  • Crop response to tillage systems
  • Costs and returns
  • Soil compaction
  • Controlled traffic
  • Water quality
  • Converting CRP to crop production
  • Integrated crop management
  • Cover crop management in cotton
  • Nutrient and weed management
  • Insect and disease management
  • Rodent damage control
  • Site-specific crop management
  • Tillage system selection and equipment descriptions
  • Fall strip-tillage systems
  • No-till and ridge-till planting equipment
  • No-till drills
  • Crop cultivators
  • Pesticide application equipment
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$35.00
Riparian Buffer Systems -- Stewards of Our Streams
Restoration and management of the land’s natural riparian buffer system can improve water quality, prevent soil erosion, and build diversity that has been lost with modern land uses. Publication offers detailed information on riparian buffers.
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Soil Cation Ratios for Crop Production
This 1994 publication provides basic information on cation ratios, their history and early development, cation ratios in soil, and cation ratios in crop production.

This information is available on the University of Minnesota Extension Nutrient Management website.
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