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Grain & Oilseed Basics Module
This module is to acquaint you with various grains and oilseeds grown in the United States and discusses how the major grains (wheat and corn) and soybeans are handled, processed, and used in food, feed, and industrial markets. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Identify major grains and oilseeds. Understand the importance of production locations and harvest schedules in terms of both food safety and quality needs.

Introduction: This modules describes quality factors and typical production, harvest, and handling procedures for wheat, corn, and soybeans. It also describes small grains such as barley, rice and millet, as well as other types of oilseeds such as canola, sunflower, flax, and cottonseed.

Grains and oilseeds: Individual field loads are blended with those from other farms as they enter the marketing chain to be sold as a bulk commodity. Bulk commodities often pass through several handling facilities before reaching a user. At each point, grain lots are combined or divided as needed for efficient shipment to the next buyer.

USDA grade standards: Grains are traded as bulk commodities using USDA Grade factors. Grade factors are determined by either official inspectors of the Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS), or by the buyer as determined by purchase contract. Factors considered under the Grades are: test weight, broken or split kernels, foreign material, damage, and odor. Buyers and sellers may also specify other factors in their purchase contract. For example, wheat is normally traded on protein content, while most other grains have no composition specification.
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Corn Processing Module
This module is designed to help understand how corn is processed into food, feed, and industrial products and where potential food and feed safety problems may occur, and how corn processing fits into feed manufacturing. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Identify types of corn processing, types of corn by-products used as feed ingredients, equipment used during corn processing, and any associated quality or feed safety concerns.

Introduction: Corn and corn by-products represent the largest single source of feed ingredients. Eighty percent of the United States corn crop is processed domestically into feed, food, or fuel. Each process has its own unique set of products and by-products, but all processors sell products into primary feed channels.

Corn by-products: Processing by-products - for example distillers grains, corn germ meal, corn gluten feed, and hominy feed — become ingredients in feed operations. Corn by-products that are used as livestock feed ingredients include dried distillers grains with solubles, syrup, and feed grade oil from the ethanol fermentation process. Other by-products that are commonly sold as feed ingredients are hominy feed from dry-milling and gluten meal and gluten feed from wet-milling.

Quality and feed safety: Physical hazards that could come in with grain during harvest are largely diminished by magnets and good management practices. Chemical hazards might be found in pesticide-treated seed that has been blended with field corn and delivered to the feed mill, or grain by-products might contain antibiotic residues from processing. Mycotoxins are also a significant hazard in grains and by-products. Feed ingredient quality is usually defined by USDA Grade factors or by contract specifications based on nutrient value.
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Wheat Processing Module
This module will recognize components of wheat processing prior to receipt at feed mill, identify classes of wheat and wheat by-products commonly used as livestock feed ingredients, list food safety hazards associated with wheat and wheat by-products and identify specialized equipment used to process wheat and wheat by-products. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Recognize components of wheat processing, identify classes and fractions of wheat, learn the specialized equipment needed, and understand potential food safety hazards.

Introduction: Wheat is sometimes fed as a grain to livestock in addition to being milled for flour. For pigs, it is ground, and for cattle it is steam-flaked. However, wheat is primarily grown for human consumption and is often not economically efficient to feed to livestock.

Processing: Wheat is processed into various grades of flour by cleaning, tempering, grinding, sifting, and purifying. Flour is sold to the baking industry.

Classes of wheat: The seven official classes of wheat are soft white, soft red spring, soft red winter, hard red winter, hard white, hard red spring, and durum. Classes are divided by hardness, color of kernels, and planting period. Each class has specific baking properties. The most common wheat by-products are wheat screenings and wheat middlings. The more fibrous and coarser fractions are used as animal feed ingredients. (Potential feed safety hazards associated with wheat or wheat by-products include non grain material, pesticides, chlorine, and vomitoxin.)

Equipment: Receiving separators, roller mills, sifters, and purifiers are important equipment in the wheat processing industry.
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Grain & Oilseed Risk Assessment Module
This module will introduce you to food safety hazards that may be present in the grain supply chain with a specific focus on grain and oilseeds. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Be able to define risk management framework according to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. Recognize sources of harm, risk, likelihood, and severity. Identify the occurrence of food safety risks and evaluate risk control strategies.

Introduction: Generally, grain and oilseeds do not have a lot of factors which make them high risk in terms of food safety. However, poor handling practices, weather issues, and improper storage procedures can increase the likelihood of certain hazards, notably mycotoxins.

Harm: The first part of risk is harm. Harm in grain can be classified in four ways: microbiological, chemical, physical, and the potential of an allergen (for food uses). Most microbiological hazards can be eliminated with heat treatment or processing. By law, chemically treated seed cannot be in the grain supply chain. Seeds leftover after planting must be disposed of according to specified protocols. Proper sanitation will prevent physical sources of harm and allergen potential. Mycotoxin management is the most complex risk issue in grains.

Severity estimates: The second part of risk is the level of severity. To measure severity, factors are number of deaths, the type of injury or disability, whether hospitalization was required, and whether the injury is permanent or temporary. Remember that grain and oilseeds contribute to raw ingredients for hundreds of human and animal products.

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Rendered Ingredients Module
This module identify rendered ingredients, list the component steps of the rendered process prior to receipt at the feed mill, identify specialized equipment used to process rendered ingredients, and list hazards associated with rendered ingredients. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Identify ingredients, the steps of the rendering process, specialized equipment, and associated hazards.

Introduction: The rendering industry is vital to the sustainability of the animal feed industry. It provides the utilization of products that would be otherwise unused as feedstuffs. Common rendered ingredients include: feather meal, poultry meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, spray dried animal plasma, fish meal, poultry fat, beef tallow, choice white grease, and yellow grease.

Rendering process: The rendering process includes receiving feedstuffs and by-products, sorting them into similar sizes, and press cooking them to separate fats prior to grinding. Of these steps, the cooking process is most pivotal.

Equipment: Specific equipment used in rendering includes sizing equipment, cookers, a feed press, and hammer mills.

Potential: Potential feed safety hazards include physical products, cleaning chemicals, and potential microbial risks inside slaughter or rendering facilities. The Rendering Code of Practice minimizes these risks in a preventative manner so that rendered ingredients pose a low animal feed or human food safety risk.
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Non-Grain By-Product Ingredients Module
This module identify common non-grain by-product ingredients, recognize the origin of non-grain by-product ingredients prior to receipt at the feed mill, identify specialized equipment used to process non-grain by-product ingredients, and recognize hazards associated with non-grain by-product ingredients. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Identify common non-grain by-product ingredients, the origin of ingredients, specialized equipment used, and associated hazards.

Introduction: Originally, non-grain by-products were intended for human consumption, however they are now utilized in nutrient composition for animals. Typically high in energy and protein and concentrated in vitamins and minerals, the most common non-grain by-products are spray-dried whey, citrus pulp, bakery by-product, bread meal, cake meal, and potato meal.

Processing: Processing steps vary based on the product, but usually include a drying process, typically spray-drying, and hammer milling to create a consistent particle size. Hammer mills, spray-dryers, and screw presses are common equipment used during this process.

Potential hazards: Animal or human health risks from non-grain by-products are low, but can come from physical hazards found in facilities like wood, metal or insect pieces. Other potential hazards may include pesticides in citrus by-products, cleaning substances, mycotoxins from molds, and oxidation products. From a risk assessment perspective, none of these hazards pose substantial risk to either animal or human health.
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Medicated Feed Additives and Other Regulated Ingredients Module
The module for medicated feed additives and other regulated ingredients cover: the classification structures for medicated additives and medicated feeds, the identification of other regulated ingredients, and the roles of current good manufacturing procedures, or cGMPs, in both feed safety and hazard prevention. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Describe the classification structures for medicated additives and medicated feeds, and the roles of current good manufacturing procedures, or cGMP’s, in both feed safety and hazard prevention.

Introduction: A major consideration in feed manufacturing is proper use and documentation of regulated feed ingredients and additives. There are cGMP regulations for medicated feeds. The purpose of the cGMPs is to promote both the consistency and quality of the medicated feeds. cGMP for non-medicated feeds take effect in September 2016.

Additives: Medicated feed additives are fed to animals for nutritional purposes, medicinal purposes, to prevent, treat, or control bacterial infections, coccidiosis, and worms, and to prevent mortality. Overall, they are used to improve the health and productivity of animals.

Classification: Medical feed additives are classified by type; A, B, or C, and category; I or II. The type refers to the usage of medicated feed. Type A medicated additives are referred to as drug premixes and are used to create Type B or C. Type B medicated additives create a medicated supplement that can be mixed to create Type C. Type C medicated additives are fed as complete feeds directly to the animal. Categorization of medicated feed additives is based on preventing drug residues in processed animal tissues after a withdrawal period. Category I are additives that do not require a withdrawal period. Category II are additives that do require a withdrawal period.
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Production Animal Digestion and Nutrition Module
Not every type of animal can adequately process and utilize the nutrients in all types of feedstuffs. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the various digestive systems found in production animals. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Understand ruminant, avian, or non-ruminant animal digestive systems. Identify key nutrients, and potentially hazardous feed ingredients.

Introduction: Animals process and utilize nutrients in all types of feedstuffs differently based on their digestive system and life stage. There are several variations in digestive systems that limit what an animal can or cannot use for nutrition.

Digestion: A monogastric digestive system is characterized by a simple, glandular stomach. Humans, pigs, and birds have a monogastric digestive system. Members of the equine family are hindgut fermenters due to their enlarged hindgut. Cattle, sheep, and goats have a ruminant digestive system which is characterized by a four compartment stomach.

Nutrition: The basic nutrients of a balanced diet are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Water is not a nutrient, but is essential to life. Carbohydrates are utilized for energy, growth, and fat. Protein is especially important in young, growing animals as well as high producing adult animals. Minerals are distributed throughout the body and are needed in small amounts. Vitamins are responsible for tissue respiration, blood formation, and the well-being of the immune system.
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Production Animal Feed Formulation Module
The module will identify personnel responsible for production animal feed formulation, identify differences in diet formulation between species of animals and phase production within a species, and compare principles of least-cost formulation to other methods of feed formulation. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Identify personnel, differences in diet between species, and compare principles of least-cost formulation to other methods of feed formulation.

Introduction: With one billion tons of animal feed produced worldwide annually, the industry needs individuals who understand feed formulation. An animal’s nutrient requirements are constantly fluctuating due to changes in genetics and the animal’s physiological state.

Species feeding: Animal species is the most influential factor in dictating nutrient needs. Chickens and pigs are fed corn based diets and ruminants are fed roughage based diets. All production animals have diets that contain vitamins, trace minerals, and salt. The specifics of nutrient requirements in diets by species are known and form the basis for feed formulation.

Phase feeding: Feed programs must meet nutritional requirements based on the animal’s stage of growth or production, genetic capacity, health, and facilities. There are different diets for various physiological states, but constantly changing diets can lead to errors in feed manufacturing. Nutritionists should consider costs, nutrient requirements, and practicality regardless of species or growth phase.

Least-cost formulation: To formulate a least-cost diet, the formulation team must look at the ingredient cost, the nutrient composition, and the animal’s nutrient requirements. Nutritionists often decide to not feed least-cost diets and instead choose diets that will minimize excreted nutrients.
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Quality Assurance and Safety Module
The module will identify the individual responsible for quality assurance and feed safety in feed manufacturing, recognize the difference between hazard identification and hazard analysis, and identify the steps involved in a feed recall. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Recognize the difference between hazard identification and hazard analysis. Identify the steps involved in a feed recall.

Introduction: The goal of feed quality assurance and feed safety programs is to provide a feed that is wholesome and nutritionally adequate. The feed mill manager and a team of specialists work to complete the desired level of feed and quality safety. Recent implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act has required mills and other processors to have formal hazard analysis protocols.

Hazard identification: Hazard identification is the process of identifying a potential contaminant in food and classifying it as a physical, chemical, or biological hazard. It is a qualitative step that involves listing potential hazards within the mill and how those hazards entered the facility.

Hazard analysis: A hazard analysis evaluates hazards through collecting quantitative historical information. The analysis will show which hazards are significant and must be addressed in the feed safety plan. Hazards are assessed on severity, occurrence, history, and the likelihood of future occurrences.

Feed recalls: Even with proper hazard identification and analysis, programs can still fail. Recall steps are important to ensure feed quality and safety. Reasons for the recall must be clearly stated along with the discovery method.

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Sanitation and Pest Management Module
The module will identify the components of a pest control program, including personnel and preventative practices used to reduce pests, identify individuals responsible for sanitation of specific process centers within the feed manufacturing facility. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Identify components of a pest control program, individuals responsible for sanitation, common pests, associated hazards, and methods of pest control in a feed and grain facility.

Introduction: The only way to keep pests from entering the grain chain is a strong sanitation program. Feed mill managers are primarily responsible for developing a sanitation schedule, based on mill design, that includes storage of incoming ingredients, equipment management, and feed transportation. Pests include mice, rats, birds, and other rodents.

Integrated pest management (IPM): The key to successful IPM starts with inspection. Every facility should have an inspection checklist customized to detect and correct issues as they emerge. Inspections and monitoring help define the presence, numbers, and spread of infestations. Periodic examination of monitoring data will indicate the benefits of IPM. Pest control is also a major element of the Food Safety Modernization Act Good Manufacturing Practices.

Food safety hazards: Physical hazards include the bodies or excreta of pests themselves. Chemical hazards involve pesticides or cleaners. Good manufacturing practices separate chemicals from feed so contamination does not occur. Biological hazards may occur if pests are carrying microbial pathogens, or if wet cleaning processes are used and equipment is not completely dry.

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Beef Industry Module
The learning objectives are as follows: Recognize how the beef cattle industry is divided and name key personnel in each division. Differentiate between management strategies at each stage of beef cattle production. Explain different feeding practices for each life stage within the beef cattle industry. List major diet components used for beef cattle for each life stage. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Recognize how the beef industry is organized and explain different feeding practices for each life stage. Learn common diet components used for beef.

Introduction: Typically, beef cattle start on a cow-calf operation. After weaning they may be sent to a backgrounder operation, then to a feedlot.

Cow-calf operations: The goal of a cow-calf operation is to maintain a herd of healthy cows that will produce healthy calves each year. Calves are separated into replacement heifers and breeding bulls to be retained within the herd, with the bulk of calves sent to backgrounders or feedlots.

Backgrounder: Calves may be sent to a specialized backgrounding facility to acclimate them to the feedlot lifestyle. Not all producers choose to utilize this stage.

Feedlot: Feedlot operations add muscle and fat to the cattle through an energy dense diet until they are ready for harvest.

Harvesting and packing: The final phase is harvesting and packing. This is where the animal is processed into products desired by consumers.

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Dairy Industry Module
The learning objectives discussed: Recognize how the dairy cattle industry is divided. Sequentially list the stages of dairy cattle production and how various dairy cattle production animals are managed at each production stage. Explain different feeding practices for each life stage within the dairy cattle industry. Describe major diet components used for dairy cattle for each life stage. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Recognize how the dairy industry is organized. Describe the different stages of production, management practices, types of housing, and feeding practices.

Introduction: The dairy industry not only provides dairy products, but also accounts for 20 percent of the beef industry. Large-scale operations house over 2,000 head of dairy cattle and make up 30 percent of the dairy industry. Small-scale operations make up 2 percent of the dairy industry.

Housing: There are a variety of housing options for dairy producers depending on the size of the herd and the amount of land available. Options may include tie stalls for very small herds, grazing and dry lots for large herds, or covered barns for herds of various sizes

Nutrition: Newborn calves will be fed colostrum and then milk. Within several days, they will be offered small amounts of concentrate to teach them how to eat solid food. After weaning, calves are introduced to a diet that includes forages and protein supplements to support growth. Bred heifers and lactating cows require the most nutrients and energy compared to others in the herd. Dry cows are in a period of maintenance and require a lower quality diet.

Milking systems: Tie-stall and parlor milking systems are commonly used throughout the dairy industry. Tie stall systems are used in smaller operations, are portable, and can be brought to the cattle. Parlor systems are housed in a separate area of the barn that is reserved for milking.

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Poultry Industry Module
The learning objectives are as follows: Recognize how the poultry industry is divided. Describe how various production poultry are managed. Explain the different types of housing used for poultry production. Explain the different feeding practices for each life stage within the poultry industry. List major diet components used for poultry production for each life stage. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Understand the organization of the poultry industry. Describe the different types of housing used for poultry production, and feeding practices used for each life stage.

Introduction: With more research and development in technology used to operate poultry production, farms have become more automated. Millions of birds can be managed by a small number of people.

Broiler production: All broiler houses include systems for ventilation, heating, lighting, brooding, feeding, watering, litter, waste, and carcass disposal (in event of diseases). Feeding is split into three rations; the grower ration, the finisher ration, and the withdrawal ration. Diets contain 85 percent corn and soybean meal plus specific premixes.

Layer production: There are three types of egg production systems; in-line, off-line, and niche market. Hens are fed a formulated mash or pelleted feed. The nutrition of laying hens greatly affects the quality of eggs produced. Feed intake may decrease for various reasons such as weather extremes, vaccinations, beak trimming, and decreased light hours.

Turkey production: There are three types of turkey production systems; heritage, commercial, and backyard. Two common housing options for turkeys are range and confinement. The diet fed to turkeys should not be restricted, this can cause cannibalistic behaviors. Turkey feed consists primarily of corn, soybean meal, fat, and premixes.

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Swine Industry Module
The learning objectives are as follows: Recognize how the swine industry is divided. Differentiate between management strategies at each stage of swine production. Explain different types of housing used for swine production. Explain different feeding practices for each life stage within the swine industry. Describe major diet components used for swine for each life stage. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Understand how the swine industry is organized. Differentiate between management strategies and housing types used in swine production.

Introduction: The swine industry is highly integrated and has found many non-meat uses for swine by-products. In order to protect animals and keep food and by-products safe, swine operations have high biosecurity measures in place.

Animal flow: There are two major animal flow processes utilized in the swine industry: continuous and all-in-all-out. Continuous operations constantly have pigs moving into, within, and off the operation. All-in-all-out operations will completely empty housing facilities for cleaning and disinfecting before the next group of pigs arrive.

Personnel: Personnel required on a grow/finish operation include a farm site manager and a stockperson. The personnel required for a farrowing operation includes a sow farm manager, a breeding and gestation lead, a farrowing lead, and a nursery lead with stockpersons working under each lead position. A farrow to finish site will have each of the employees required for grow/finish and farrowing operations.

Housing types: Pigs can be housed in confinements or outdoors. Confinement housing is in climate controlled buildings that have proper temperature, ventilation, and lighting. Outdoor housing for swine consists of outdoor pens and hoop buildings that provide shelter from harsh weather conditions. The labor input for outdoor facilities is much higher, and the growth and conception rates are lower than those in confinement operations.

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Dryeration Module
Dryeration increases energy efficiency by 15 to 30 percent compared to high temperature drying with immediate cooling. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Understand the dryeration process, review the equipment needed, and learn effective management strategies to carry out the dryeration process.

Introduction: High temperature drying is halted when grain is slightly above the finished moisture content target. Hot grain is moved from the dryer to a separate bin to steep before cooling. Additional moisture is removed during the cooling process and the cooled grain is then transferred to storage.

Equipment: Some equipment modification is needed for dryeration. A high temperature dryer will do the majority of the grain drying but a separate dedicated bin for steeping and cooling the grain is also needed. Additionally, extra conveyers are needed to move the hot grain to the cooling bins and the cool grain to storage, with controls to manage the cooling fans and conveyers.

Management tips: Stop the dryer and transfer the hot grain 2 to 3 percent points above the desired moisture content. Allow the hot grain to steep at least four hours, then cool the grain and transfer it to storage. Check the finished moisture content and adjust the drying time as needed.

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Aeration Module
A look at how to maintain stored grain in good, quality condition, we’ll see how three different conditions interact to cause grain spoilage problems. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Understand the function of aeration in preventing grain spoilage. Learn to establish a grain quality monitoring system with frequent temperature checks to prevent spoilage.

Introduction: In order to maintain grain in good quality condition, it’s important to avoid storage problems. There are three areas to focus on: moisture, temperature, and time. Holding grain that is too wet, too warm, or for too long can cause problems. This module explains how those three different conditions interact to cause grain spoilage. In addition, the accumulation of fines can promote spoilage or restrict airflow. This module will present solutions, including how aeration prevents uneven grain temperatures during moist conditions in storage, and the importance of checking grain while it is in storage to prevent small problems from developing into large ones.

Moisture: Fungi and other spoilage organisms grow best at or above 65 percent relative humidity. The air within stored grain should stay below 65 percent relative humidity if possible to prevent spoilage. For wetter corn, temperature becomes the primary control factor.

Temperature Control: Moisture migration can cause crusting or spoilage at the top of the bin near the center. Moisture migration can be prevented by cooling the grain with aeration fans. Aeration fans create a negative pressure system pulling cool air down through the grain or a positive pressure system by pushing cool air up through the grain. There are a variety of electronics available to measure grain temperature and monitor the aeration process.

Checking Grain Storage: Stored grain needs to be checked to monitor grain quality. During the winter months, checking every other week is adequate. Checking once per week during summer, spring, and fall is recommended. Safety should be a priority when checking stored grain. Depending on the severity of the spoilage, correcting a storage problem can be done by aeration fans or grain removal.

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Fan Performance Module
As we look at using fans for drying and storage of grain, it's important to know what performance those fans are giving and what performance is needed in-order to select an appropriate fan for a drying or storage bin. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Understand the fan performance provided to cool grain and learn the requirements for fan selection.

Airflow Rate Requirements: For high temperature bin drying, anywhere from 2 to 6 cubic feet of air per minute per bushel (cfm/bu) is needed. In natural air drying 1 to 3 cfm/bu is used. For aeration of stored grain, 0.1 to 0.5 cfm/bu is needed.

Equipment: Typically a fan is used to push air up through the grain, creating a positive pressure system. The fan pressurizes the flow beneath the grain. The amount of static pressure (resistance) needed to achieve a certain airflow rate depends on the type of grain, the grain depth, and the airflow rate.

Fan Types: There are several types of fans. The two most commonly used fans are vane axial fans and centrifugal fans. Vane axial fans are less expensive, create higher airflows at lower pressure, and are loud. Centrifugal fans are quiet in nature, and are usually more efficient above 4 inches of static pressure.

Fan Selection: The number of bushels in the bin and the desired airflow rate determine fan selection.

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Grain Drying Economics Module
Climate conditions in the upper Midwest states make it necessary for most corn harvested for grain to be dried artificially. Grain producers are faced with a variety of choices when it comes to marketing their crop. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Understand the economic components of drying grain.

Cost of drying corn on-farm: The cost of drying corn on the farm depends on the size and type of drying system, the amount of moisture in the corn, weather conditions, and the costs of labor, electricity, and drying fuel.

Wet grain at harvest: When grain is wet at harvest, there are several considerations to make in addition to the time of harvest. Most grain buyers assess moisture discounts and commercial elevators charge a drying cost for wet grain.

Other corn drying considerations: Both moisture level and temperature of the grain should be considered.

Storage time: The cooler the grain temperature, and the lower the moisture content, the longer the storage time is for both corn and soybeans.

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Grain Storage Economics Module
Storage is a primary method to ration the use of commodity corn and soybeans once harvested, throughout the marketing year. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Understand the variables to consider when deciding to store grain or sell immediately after harvest.

Cost of grain ownership: Initial costs after harvest include maintaining quality, transporting bushels to a point of sale, or processing the bushels for livestock on the farm. Quality deterioration is inevitable when storing grain for any length of time, especially if it is not properly dried after harvest. By the spring months, commercial storage costs exceed on-farm storage costs. Interest on debt against on-farm storage facility or debt on borrowed funds could be reduced by selling the grain immediately.

Storage considerations: On-farm drying of grain will extend maximum storage time - 13 to 14 percent moisture, allowing grain to be stored for 6 to 12 months after harvest. Corn sold commercially is adjusted to 15 percent moisture for delivery of sale and 14 percent moisture for bushels placed under warehouse receipt. Cooling the grain to temperatures of 40°F or lower can extend storage time significantly. As it dries the grain will shrink causing fewer bushels to be marketed.

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Mycotoxins 1: Mycotoxin Development Module
This module will discuss mycotoxins and their significance for grain and feed industries. This module covers mycotoxin production by various fungal species and the impact of mycotoxin contamination in animal feed. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Learn management practices for testing mycotoxin contamination, and preventing the production of mycotoxins. Understand the relationship of fungi in the environment to mycotoxin production. Recognize harmful levels and effects of certain mycotoxins on humans and animals.

Introduction: Mycotoxins are chemical compounds produced by some fungi. They contaminate crops worldwide. There are five mycotoxins typically of concern in US grains; aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin), and zearalenone.

Development: Not all fungi produce mycotoxins, and those capable of producing mycotoxins do not always do so. Climate, weather, plant health, development stage, and the timing of these interacting factors govern the risk for both fungal and mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are stable compounds, so once they are in a product they are hard to remove.

Harmful levels: Action levels for aflatoxin range from 20 ppb in general commerce, up to 300 ppb in grain intended for beef cattle. Advisory levels for deoxynivalenol have been established as well as guidance levels for fumonisins. The FDA does not currently have action, advisory, or guidance levels for zearalenone or ochratoxin A.
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Mycotoxins 2: Best Practices in Handling and Testing Module
This module will focus on sampling and analysis of grains for mycotoxins, factors that influence the contamination of stored grains with mycotoxins, and options for handling and use of contaminated grain. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

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Learning objective: Understand the best management practices for mycotoxin testing, for preventing the further production of mycotoxins, and for handling contaminated grain.

Introduction: Mycotoxins are chemical compounds produced by some fungi that contaminate crops worldwide. There are five mycotoxins typically of concern in US grain; aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin), and zearalenone. Mycotoxins are difficult to manage in harvested grain.

Sampling and analysis: Sampling, sample preparation, and analysis are the primary components of a mycotoxin testing procedure. The collected sample must be representative of the lot being tested. Samples are prepared by grinding and mixing the sample, followed by representative subdivision to an analysis sample. Analyses are made using a variety of methods, some examples include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), rapid test kits, or thin-layer chromatography (TLC).

Handling contaminated grains: Grain handling and processing facilities should have an informed strategy that is proactively preventing excessive mycotoxin contamination in the food and feed chain. It should be an organized plan that is communicated to, and understood by, the relevant employees at the facility.
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Oilseed Processing Module
Oilseeds and their by-products are valuable ingredients for livestock and poultry. This module will identify components of oilseed processing prior to receipt at feed mill, identify common oilseeds and by-products, list hazards associated with oilseeds and by-products, and identify specialized equipment used to process oilseeds and by-products. This grain module is brought to you by the Iowa Grain Quality Initiative, and was produced by the Crop Advisor Institute.

Click here to access the Oilseed Processing Module



Learning objective: Identify common oilseeds and oilseed by-products, learn the components of the oilseed process, explore the specialized equipment needed, and identify potential hazards.

Introduction: Oilseeds and their by-products are valuable ingredients for livestock and poultry. Common oilseeds are sun¬flowers, safflowers, canola, flax, and soybeans. The oil produced is usually used for human consumption, but soybean oilseed meal is most often used in animal feed.

Oilseed processing: Oilseed processing is done by solvent extraction. Multiple steps are taken to remove the hull, flake the meat, extract and refine the oil, and then process the remaining meal appropriately.

Equipment: Specific equipment used during oilseed processing includes: dehullers, flakers, extractors, centrifuges for refinement, the Desolventizer Toaster Dryer Cooler (DTDC) machine, and hammer mills.

Potential hazards: The potential feed safety hazards associated with oilseeds and their by-products include non-grain material, solvent residues, grain chemicals, and mold. However, potential feed safety hazards present a very low risk to animal and human health if consumed.

This module was created at Kansas State University as part of a cooperative agreement with the Food and Drug Administration for food safety inspector training.
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Determination of Potential Microbial Hazard(s) in Animal Food
There are many factors that can contribute to feed becoming contaminated with a microbial hazard during the production of food for pets and livestock. The purpose of this reference document is to provide inspection program personnel with instructions to determine potential microbial contaminations that can lead to a food safety crisis within production facilities manufacturing food for pets and livestock.
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Grain Storage Alternatives: An Economic Comparison
Storing grain beyond harvest greatly increases the marketing opportunities available. Knowing the costs and benefits of different storage options helps producers determine the options that fit into their overall harvesting, handling and marketing system.
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Guide to Liquid Sanitizer Washes with Fruit and Vegetables
This publication is for growers looking for information about the best post-harvest sanitizing practices for fresh fruits and vegetables. It includes a comprehensive chart of five commonly used liquid sanitizers.
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Food Pantry Produce Donations - Grower Information
Donations from local fruit and vegetable growers are important to food pantries. This publication provides information to growers about safe on-farm food practices and information to food pantry workers about how to keep donated produce safe.
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Forage Testing Laboratories
This list of forage testing laboratories represents many of the laboratories in Iowa, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Minnesota, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, and South Dakota that are used by Iowa livestock producers.
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Forage Sampling and Sampling Equipment
Tips for accurate forage sampling and where to buy hay sampling probes.
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Frost Damage to Corn and Soybeans
Learn about the characteristics, uses and handling and storage of frost-damaged corn and soybeans.
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The Ensiling Process and Additives
Ensiling products has many purposes, including achieving optimum dry matter content, providing long-term storage and increasing harvest-time flexibility. Learn how to safely and successfully ensile your plant products.
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Organic Flax Production in Iowa
There is renewed interest in growing food grade flaxseed and flaxseed oil in Iowa. Find the latest research and advice on planting, fertility requirements, variety selection, pest management, economics, harvesting, and more here.
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Soybean Drying and Storage
Find out about soybean harvest moisture, storage moisture, drying tips, high-temperature drying, low-temperature drying, and more.
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Estimated Costs for Production, Storage, and Transportation of Switchgrass
Switchgrass, a perennial warm-season grass native to Iowa, is one of the major plants being considered to produce ethanol. Alternative assumptions are presented to estimate the cost of production.
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Iowa Grain Quality Initiative
Worldwide emphasis on grain quality and the increasing use of value-added grains for a specific purpose hold tremendous opportunities for Iowa corn and soybean growers. The Iowa Grain Quality Initiative (IGQI) envisions a future in which Iowa is the location of choice for commercialization of specialty or value-added grains.
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